Social Sciences Essay 1. Primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character. They are gathered by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem. Secondary data, on the other hand, are those which have already been collected by someone else and have been processed statistically. These are collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand (Polonsky Waller, 2005; Kothari, 2005). Some of the disadvantages of using a newspaper or magazine article as secondary source are doubts in the reliability, credibility and accuracy of data as sources may not be known, and the obsolescence of data as well (Summers Johnson-Morgan, 2005). Primary and secondary data alone are not sufficient. They should be both used in research because secondary data can be lacking something that only primary data can provide (Groucutt, Leadley, Forsyth, 2004). 2. Television broadcasts such as news are not totally valid as there is a tendency, especially in programs aimed at a wide public, to oversimplify data. News normally offers one set of secondary data. It would be a better practice to compare data from different sources (Walliman, 2006). The questionnaire, as a means for collecting primary data, should have minimal errors in its design in order to minimize bias in reporting and to maximize the likelihood of generating information that is reliable and valid (Amedeo, Golledge, Stimson, 2008). A systematic research design is aimed to ensure that appropriate issues are taken into account. It provides the mechanism by which research processes and practices can be assessed. The research design lays the foundation for a sound hypothesis describing the interrelationship of variables and providing the researcher with a baseline from which to work. A good research design eliminates ambiguity in concepts, thus ensuring construct validity. The actual design of the research process ensures that no other variables can affect the study, hence enhancing internal validity. The research design also provides control to unwanted variables that may arise in the conduct of the research in order to uphold its external validity. Statistical tests are used as instruments to verify the validity of the hypothesis. Hence, if statistical information is wrong, the hypothesis will be invalid (Black, 1999). References Amedeo, D. , Golledge, R. G. , Stimson, R. J. (2008). Person-Environment-Behavior Research: Investigating Activities and Experiences in Spaces and Environments. New York: Guilford Press. Black, T. R. (1999). Doing Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences: An Integrated Approach to Research Design, Measurement and Statistics. California: SAGE Publishing. Groucutt, J. , Leadley, P. , Forsyth, P. (2004). Marketing: Essential Principles, New Realities. London: Kogan Page Publishers. Kothari, C. R. (2005). Research Methodology: Methods Techniques. New Delhi: New Age Publishers. Polonsky, M. J. , Waller, D. S. (2005). Designing and Managing a Research Project: A Business Students Guide. California: SAGE Publishing. Summers, J. Johnson-Morgan, M. (2005). Sports Marketing. Ontario: Nelson Thomson Learning. Walliman, N. S. R. (2006). Social Research Methods. California: SAGE Publishing.
â€œDrama is essentially about the struggle for power and the impact of this struggle on individuals. â€ How does Shakespeare use a range of literary conventions and writing techniques to explore this concept? Within Shakespeareâ€™s productions the struggle for power within individuals is represented; not only in script but stage directions and writing techniques. â€˜King Learâ€™ is a tragedy, considered to be a literary masterpiece. Throughout the coinciding plots, conflicts between tragic heroes and their â€˜loyalâ€™ followers develop the major ideas of the play.
The nature of the world, betrayal and loyalty are all themes that form the basis of these conflicts. Inevitably these themes provoke the audience to side with certain characters and create modern day analogies towards specific themes in the text; good battling evil is the cornerstone of the script and the inevitable struggle to regain power. Within the script Shakespeare presents characters of great greed and ambition in the effort to gain power. Their struggle towards power is followed, Edmund seeking Gloucesterâ€™s title and Gonerill and Regan in the hunt for Learâ€™s land and power.
Initially, the audience is presented with the â€˜love testâ€™ in which Learâ€™s daughters have to flatter their father into dividing the Kingdom. Consequently, Shakespeare foreshadows the repercussions of Learâ€™s actions through metaphor â€˜We have seen the best of our timeâ€¦ all ruinous disorders follow us disquietly to our gravesâ€¦ we make guilty of our disastersâ€¦ by and influenced obedience of planetary influenceâ€™. Through Gloucesterâ€™s words the direction of the play becomes increasingly obvious.
From Act I we are presented with a struggle of power and more is foreshadowed. Manipulation is also a tool used by Shakespeare to create strong emotion within the battle of good vs. evil. The storm brewing outside the Kingdom is metaphorically what is going on inside Learâ€™s head. At this present time Lear is full of conflict, anger and disorder much like the environment â€˜one minded like the weather, most unquietlyâ€™. Shakespeare is manipulating the audience, changing their emotions in accordance to the tone of the act.
Shakespeare has allowed the audience to form their own views on characters, only after providing strong persuasive symbols and intentions of their power. Symbolism is the most effective device in the text indicating how ruthless characters such as Gonerill, Regan and Edmund pursue power to satisfy their needs. Gonerill especially, when described as having a â€˜wolfish visageâ€™ and as being â€˜Sharp-toothed, like a vultureâ€™. Similarly, Regan is presented in the same light; â€˜looked blackâ€¦ most serpent likeâ€™.
On a whole, the sisters are â€˜animalisticâ€™ with â€˜boarish fangsâ€™, â€˜monsters of the deepâ€™, â€˜dog hearted daughtersâ€™ and â€˜tigers not daughtersâ€™. Conversely Shakespeare contrasts this and conveys Cordelia with â€˜saintâ€™ like status, â€˜sing like birds in a cageâ€™. Cordelia is really the only figure to be represented positively. Through this symbol of Cordelia the audience is immediately attracted towards her. Whilst Gonerill and Regan are the epitome of evil, Cordelia by the end of the play is recognised to be the true essence of goodness.
Shakespeare also provides animalistic symbolism, through Lear, whilst describing mankind. â€˜poor bare forked animalâ€™ describing manâ€™s venerability. It also ironic in the sense, that as Lear gains a sense of being he is able to generalise mankind through the power he once had. Although Gloucester is physically blinded, Lear is personified metaphorically through his inability to see the world clearly, â€˜see better, Learâ€™. When the sub plots finally meet, Learâ€™s encounter with Gloucester is beneficial as things become visible.
With careful perception, it becomes increasingly obvious that Gloucesterâ€™s blinding is the physical manifestation of the mental torture Lear endures. Shakespeare includes irony after Gloucesterâ€™s physical blinding, â€˜I stumbled when I sawâ€™. He finally acknowledges his mistakes and misjudgements about his sons. In another case this may be humorous to the audience but in fact it delivers comedy of the grotesque. The audience is deeply saddened through the irony. When Gloucester could see, he couldnâ€™t see the true colours of his sons.
Conversely when he became physically blinded it was only then, that he fully understood his sonâ€™s real identities. Gloucester also becomes more perceptive with his tragedy, and is almost reiterating central ideas of the play, â€˜As flies to wanton Boys, are we to the Gods; they kill us for their sport. â€™ He is acting as a tool for Shakespeare to display the impact of power amongst people. That mankind is dispensable. Conflict is the underlying convention Shakespeare uses, giving the audience insight into the real motives of characters good or evil.
From this we can determine who really is good, and who is fundamentally evil. The inevitable battle between Edmund and the rest of his family, Edgar and Gloucester almost drives Gloucester beyond the limits of endurance. Gloucesterâ€™s overwhelming suffering; both physically and mentally, take its toll, â€˜but his heart flawedâ€¦burst smilinglyâ€™. Similarly, Lear is put through suffering by his â€˜pelican daughtersâ€™, and grows from it. Initially he is an egotistical, self-centred man which through his suffering acknowledges that fame and power are transitory.
By the end of the script Lear has developed into a philosophical, fatalistic old man. Manipulation is again used by Shakespeare but in an ironic sense, as power is destroyed, harmony is developed. As Lear reconciles with Cordelia, the background music represents Learâ€™s state of mind. Music is the art of combining vocal and instrumental sound to produce harmony and express emotion. The calmness of the music represents Learâ€™s psychological state and peace of mind, â€˜my own tears do scald like molten leadâ€™. This is ironic as Shakespeare has transformed Lear much the same as the weather.
In the dark gloomy storm, Lear was fragile, compared to spring the sign of new life where he is returned to tranquillity. Shakespeare personifies the struggle for power and its convoluted effect. The script is transformed into another dimension with the use of writing techniques and literary conventions. Irony has been the cornerstone in which the central ideas of the play have been shaped, providing the reader with timeless life lesions. King Lear is a text that advocates the struggle for power and how this impacts individuals. Individuals must be aware of the addictive nature of power and be wary of its destructive ability.
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